The following are current news items.
26 April 2021: Mauritius government gives permission for capture of wild monkeys and expansion of monkey breeding farm
Action for Primates has condemned as a 'backward step' the decision by the government of Mauritius to grant permission for the expansion of Biosphere Trading Ltd and to allow the company to capture around 1,000 wild monkeys. Biosphere Trading, a company at Closel in Tamarin Falls, breeds and exports long-tailed macaques for research. It has been reported that it will now increase its current capacity of 800 monkeys to 7,500 monkeys, with the aim of exporting 1,500 monkeys per year to the USA and Canada (1).
Mauritius is already one of the world's largest exporters of monkeys for the global research industry, exporting thousands of monkeys every year to the USA and Europe. In 2020, 10,827 long-tailed macaques were exported from the country, an increase of 40% (3,088 monkeys) to 2019.
Action for Primates, Progress Science Mauritius, One Voice and Animal Rights, who led an international campaign representing many thousands of people from within Mauritius and around the world, are dismayed this decision was made at a time when there is widespread global concern over the capture of wild non-human primates, especially because of the cruelty and suffering caused by the removal of such animals from their natural habitat, social and family groups. They are concerned that such a step could lead to the resumption of the large-scale commercial trapping of wild long-tailed macaques in Mauritius.
Several official bodies and organisations, including the European Union, recognise the suffering involved in the capturing of wild non-human primates. For example, the International Primatological Society (IPS):
...the capture of nonhuman primates from the wild is stressful for the animals and increases the suffering, risk of injuries, spread of disease and even death during capture, storage and transport (2)
...the capture of nonhuman primates from the wild is stressful for the animals and increases the suffering, risk of injuries, spread of disease and even death during capture, storage and transport
The European Union Directive (applied across the EU in 2013) recognises that the capture of non-human primates from the wild is highly stressful for the animals concerned and carries an elevated risk of injury and suffering during capture and transport. In order to end the capture of animals from the wild, including for purposes of breeding, the Directive introduced provisions with the objective of moving towards using only non-human primates who have been bred in self-sustaining colonies, from parents who themselves have been bred in captivity (3).
Holding and transportation are additional sources of stress and suffering, as the monkeys are shipped on long journeys around the world in the cargo holds of aeroplanes. There has been much evidence accumulated over the years that has revealed the immense cruelty and suffering that is inflicted on monkeys during their capture, caging, holding and transportation.
5 April 2021: Japanese macaques used in painful research
Japanese macaques, commonly known as snow monkeys, are famous for enjoying and bathing in hot springs in their native habitat. Few people will be aware, however, that not only are these macaques captured from the wild and killed following human-macaque 'conflicts', but they are also used in research in Japan, as well as exported overseas to be used in other laboratories. In 2019, 59 snow monkeys were exported to China, including 57 who were captured from the wild in Japan.
A recently published experiment carried out on snow monkeys at Osaka University in Japan, involved using the monkeys as a 'model' for central poststroke pain, which is caused by damage to the brain (1). The monkeys were deliberately subjected to pain and then the researchers tracked changes in the animals' pain threshold using a behavioural experiment and tracking anatomical and functional changes in the brain by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
In two adult male snow monkeys, a specific part of the brain was damaged to create central poststroke pain (CPSP). Under anaesthesia, part of the scalp was removed and a recording chamber was screwed to the skull with at least one hole into the brain for injecting the compound that would cause the artificial stroke and for making recordings. Head posts were also implanted into the monkeys' skulls. For recordings, the monkeys were forced to sit in a device made of acrylate glass with their lower backs and heads immobilised. Their wrists were also fixed in place to keep their palms facing downwards. An eyeshield was used so that the monkeys could not see their hands and stimulators during the experiment. The monkeys had to do certain tasks and respond to painful stimuli. They were deliberately subjected to pain through a hot stimulus (45-50°C) and a cold stimulus (5-15°C). In their Supplementary Information document, the authors stated that To avoid burns, each trial took less than 1 minute. ... Monkeys could get a food reward if they could endure the stimulus for 1 minute.
The fate of the macaques was not stated.
The authors acknowledged there were major limitations to their research, in design and results. This raises questions as to why the study was approved, subjecting the snow monkeys to this brutal research. Among the limitations listed were 1) the type of artificial brain damage was different to that in people with stroke, 2) the pain induced by the stimulations was not the same as the persistent pain experienced by people suffering from CPSP, and 3) the pain rating scale commonly used for people suffering from CPSP was not used because such subjective measures could not be obtained from the monkeys. These and the other limitations acknowledged by the researchers reinforce our recurring argument that using non-human primates to study human illnesses is not only morally reprehensible, it also lacks scientific validity.
central poststroke pain
To avoid burns, each trial took less than 1 minute. ... Monkeys could get a food reward if they could endure the stimulus for 1 minute.
subjective measures could not be obtained from the monkeys.
1 March 2021: Macaques injected with toxic solvent to deliberately cause liver damage
Thirty male long-tailed macaques were used in this research carried out to evaluate the different stages of liver fibrosis (scarring of liver tissue) in long-tailed macaques (1). Eight of these individuals died before the study was completed. The work was done at The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University in China, approved by the medical ethics committee and experimental animal ethics committee, and funded by various sources within China.
The macaques were injected subcutaneously with carbon tetrachloride twice a week. Carbon tetrachloride is used as a solvent for oils and fats, as a refrigerant and as a dry-cleaning agent. It is highly toxic and carcinogenic. Presumably to add to the liver damage suffered by these monkeys, they were also fed a high-fat diet supplemented with about 35% cholesterol and the only source of fluids given to them was an ethanol (alcohol) solution (10% in water). Every four weeks after the injection with carbon tetrachloride, the macaques were anaesthetised with ketamine in order to get liver tissue via needle aspiration. The animals were also subjected to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). After 20 weeks, the macaques were anaesthetised with ketamine and killed by injecting air into an ear vein. Liver tissue was collected for examination.
Eight of the macaques died during the study. The remaining 22, who were killed, were all found to have fibrosis of the liver, most with severe damage. The authors of the paper provide no details of the clinical condition of the monkeys, especially those individuals who died during this appalling 'experiment'.
The aim of the work was to develop a model of liver fibrosis in the long-tailed macaque. The artificial nature of the research, the lack of application to people who suffer liver damage caused by a variety of factors (and not by injecting themselves with a solvent!) and the infliction of such severe suffering on sentient beings is morally and scientifically unacceptable. It leaves us wondering what working definition of ethics was used by the institution's medical ethics committee and experimental animal ethics committee.
medical ethics committee and experimental animal ethics committee
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2 February 2021: Photos of rescued macaques
Here are some photos of Mona, Boim and Boris settling in at the Jakarta Animal Aid (JAAN) wildlife rescue centre, enjoying their first days of freedom from the torment and cruelty inflicted upon them by the YouTuber in Jakarta. The monkeys were confiscated by the Indonesia authorities (see our Take Action alert for more information), following complaints submitted to Dr Anies Baswedan, the Governor of Jakarta, including a report from Dr Nedim Buyukmihci, veterinary adviser from Action for Primates.
There has been widespread news media coverage in Indonesia and condemnation of the abuse suffered by these monkeys filmed for 'entertainment' and broadcast on YouTube. The cruelty included rubbing obnoxious substances such as glue or chilli onto the monkeys' food and lighting firecrackers and sparklers to scare them.
The rescue of these monkeys demonstrates the importance of writing letters and sending E-mail to those who have the ability to make change. Although we can never know whether we will be successful every time, we can be sure that a lack of action will fail. This confiscation will, we hope, send an important message and help to deter people from mistreating non-human primates and others.
It has also shone a spotlight on YouTube and its shameful promotion of animal cruelty by allowing such abusive content to be broadcast. Despite the action taken by the Indonesian authorities, the YouTube channel continues to be available, broadcasting the sadistic and cruel treatment of non-human primates.
Please continue to send polite E-mail to Ms Susan Wojcicki, Chief Executive Officer, and ask her to enforce YouTube rules and take down all animal abuse videos: email@example.com (clicking on Wojcicki's E-mail address will automatically Cc firstname.lastname@example.org)
9 January 2021: Macaques subjected to two months of unpredictable stress to simulate 'depression'
A group of 16 female long-tailed macaques were subjected to cruel and inhumane treatment in an attempt to simulate depression with chronic unpredictable stress (CUS), and then to study the effects of drugs (1). The chronic stressors included food and water deprivation, space restriction and restraint, loud noise, strobe light, and intimidation with fake snakes. The work was approved by and done at the Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Beijing in China.
Ten of the macaques were of low social status...tended to be alone, always bullied by other monkeys and afraid to fight for food with other monkeys... These were the stress group; the other six normal macaques served as the control group. All were singly housed in barren, steel cages. For eight weeks, each individual in the stressed group was subjected to chronic unpredictable stress, two on each day lasting 12 hours each:
low social status...tended to be alone, always bullied by other monkeys and afraid to fight for food with other monkeys...
The macaques were observed for behavioural changes huddling and self-clasping classed as negative depression-like behaviour and locomotion and environmental exploration as positive. After eight weeks, the individuals in the stressed group were given a test drug and their behaviours observed. The drugs apparently reduced depression-like behaviors. The fate of the macaques was not stated.
There is no doubt the monkeys suffered substantially in this research. To treat non-human primates so cruelly under the guise of science is immoral. Further, the artificial stressors inflicted on these monkeys cannot compare to the complex emotional, genetic and environmental stressors that cause mental illness and depression in humans.
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY).
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY).