Action for Primates

Long-tailed macaques, photo by Sarah Kite
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Ancillary Information for 2022 Take Action entries

The following is ancillary information relevant to certain take action items we have posted in 2022. The information is linked in the original entry.


Ancillary information for Call on US authorities to ban imports of long-tailed macaques to laboratories, published 26 December 2022

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Ancillary information for Monkeys subjected to highly invasive brain surgery, published 19 December 2022

Summaries of the experiments:

Two adult male macaques were used at Brown University. Contrary to accepted norms, the species of macaque was not mentioned in the article. The macaques were subjected to head surgery, including craniotomy, to implant a chamber to access the brain. There was essentially no description on what method of restraint was used to carry out tests nor was the fate of the macaques mentioned. Burk & Sheinberg 2022-09-18
NIH grant: EY014681

Four adult rhesus macaques (one female, three males) were used at the National Institutes of Health. They were subjected to head surgery, including craniotomy, to implant a recording chamber and a head restraint post into the skull. For testing, they were restrained in a device and their heads were further restrained by the use of the posts. During testing, they were provided a juice reward when there was a correct response. The fate of the macaques was not determined. Waidmann et al 2022-09-23
NIH grants: MH002838, MH002898

Two adult female rhesus macaques were used at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. They were subjected to head surgery to implant head restraint three pins into the skull. For testing, they were restrained in a device and their heads were further restrained by the use of the head pins. During testing, they were provided a juice reward when there was a correct response. The fate of the macaques was not determined. Human volunteers also were tested in a similar manner (no head pins), calling into question why the macaques were used. Rajalingham et al 2022-10-04
NIH grant: MH122025

Two adult male rhesus macaques were used at The University of Chicago. They were subjected to head surgery, including craniotomy, to implant a recording chamber and a head restraint post into the skull. For testing, they were restrained in a device and their heads were further restrained by the use of the posts. A juice reward was provided when there was a correct response. The fate of the macaques was not determined. Zhou et al 2022-10-19
NIH grant: EY019041

Two adult female rhesus macaques were used at York University (Canada; although done in Canada, the project was supported in part through a grant from the NIH). They were subjected to head surgery, including craniotomy, to implant a recording chamber. During testing, they were provided a juice reward when there was a correct response. The fate of the macaques was not determined. Hussin et al 2022-10-19
NIH grant: NS127128

One bonnet macaque and one rhesus macaque were used at Vanderbilt University. They were subjected to head surgery, including craniotomy, to implant a recording chamber and a head restraint post into the skull. For testing, they were restrained in a device and their heads were further restrained by the use of the posts. A fluid reward was provided when there was a correct response. The macaques were killed at the end of the experiment. Sajad et al 2022-10-21
NIH grants: MH055806, EY019882, EY008126

Twenty-two rhesus macaques were used at the University of Texas at Houston and Emory National Primate Research Center. They were taken away from their mothers at birth and raised in a surrogate nursery. When they were about 10-15 days old, they were anaesthetised and subjected to craniotomies in order to inject a poison into the brain to destroy parts of it or to suck out parts of the brain. Some of the individuals were subjected to the entire surgery, but without causing brain damage (controls). Later, all the macaques were housed individually (without meaningful social contact with others). When the macaques were 7-9 years old, they were killed to get their brains. Heuer et al 2023
NIH grants: MH058846, HD035471, MH047840, OD011132

Two adult male rhesus macaques were used at the University of Pittsburgh. They subjected to craniotomy to implant electrodes into the brain. Fluid rewards were used for training and testing. The macaques were restrained in a primate chair during the experiment. The fate of the macaques was not stated. Heusser et al 2022
NIH grants: EY022854, EY024831, GM081760


Relevant directors of the NIH and its branches, as well as others who are responsible for this research:


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Research publications:

  1. Burk, Diana C. and Sheinberg, David L. 2022-09-18 "Neurons in inferior temporal cortex are sensitive to motion trajectory during degraded object recognition" Cerebral Cortex Communications 3(3):tgac034
  2. Heuer, Eric; Kazama, Andrew and Bachevalier, Jocelyne 2023-02-13 "Acoustic startle and prepulse inhibition deficits in adult monkeys with neonatal lesions of the hippocampus, amygdala and orbital frontal cortex" Behavioural Brain Research 438:114170
  3. Heusser, Michelle R.; Bourrelly,Clara and Gandhi, Neeraj J. 2022-11-15 "Decoding the time course of spatial information from spiking and local field potential activities in the superior colliculus" eNeuro
  4. Hussin, Ahmed T.; Abbaspoor, Saman and Hoffman, Kari L. 2022-10-19 "Retrosplenial and Hippocampal Synchrony during Retrieval of Old Memories in Macaques" The Journal of Neuroscience 42(42):7947-7956
  5. Rajalingham, Rishi; Piccato, Aída and Jazayeri, Mehrdad 2022-10-04 "Recurrent neural networks with explicit representation of dynamic latent variables can mimic behavioral patterns in a physical inference task" Nature Communications 13(1):5865
  6. Sajad, Amirsaman; Errington, Steven P. and Schall, Jeffrey D. 2022-10-21 "Functional architecture of executive control and associated event-related potentials in macaques" Nature Communications 13(1):6270
  7. Waidmann, Elena N.; Koyano, Kenji W.; Hong, Julie J.; Russ, Brian E. and Leopold, David A. 2022-09-23 "Local features drive identity responses in macaque anterior face patches" Nature Communications 13(1):5592
  8. Zhou, Yang; Mohan, Krithika and Freedman, David J. 2022-10-19 "Abstract Encoding of Categorical Decisions in Medial Superior Temporal and Lateral Intraparietal Cortices" The Journal of Neuroscience

Ancillary information for Monkeys used and killed in diet studies at Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, published 27 October 2022

Summaries of the experiments for 27 October 2022 Take Action alert:

One hundred and twenty-two female Japanese macaques were used. They were given different diets, including the Western-style diet (containing protein and fat mainly from animal sources and high in salt and saturated fats, said to be similar to that consumed by middle-aged American women). They were allowed to become pregnant and allowed to give birth. After about 13 months, the juvenile macaques were all killed (euphemistically referred to as euthanized). Dunn et al 2022
NIH grants: MH107508, MH117177, MH124824, OD011092

Thirty-nine female rhesus macaques were used. They were given different diets, including the Western-style diet, and a hormone. Endometriosis (disorder of the uterus) developed. The macaques were subjected to multiple abdominal surgeries over several years. All were killed at the end of the experiment. Bishop_36173894
NIH grants: HD071836, OD011092

Adult female Japanese macaques, possibly 152, were used. The macaques were made obese through diet, including the Western-style diet, fed to them for up to nine years. They were allowed to become pregnant. At about 130 days of gestation (165 days is normal), the foetuses were surgically removed from the mothers and killed. Other female macaques were subjected to at least one additional pregnancy. In these cases, some of the foetuses were killed after surgical removal, but some were allowed to be born naturally and were killed a year later. The fate of the mothers was not stated. Nash et al 2021
NIH grants: DK090964, DK122672, DK108910, DK048520, NS048154, DK116073

Forty female rhesus macaques were used. They were fed either a Western-style diet or a standard diet. Some were also implanted with testosterone to increase this hormone by three to five times normal. Some of the macaques developed endometriosis during this dietary and treatment regimen and could not be used. The macaques were subjected to anaesthesia and surgery to evaluate their ovaries after being injected with more hormones to stimulate egg development. Eggs were removed, grown in vitro and inseminated artificially. Fate of the macaques was not stated. Ravisankar et al 2022
NIH grants: HD071836, OD011092

Fourteen late-middle to early-old age female rhesus macaques were used. They were fed a Western-style diet to create obesity. After about six weeks, all the macaques were subjected to major survival surgery to remove their ovaries and uteruses. Some were further treated with the hormone estradiol. After about 30 months, all the macaques were killed. Cervera-Juanes et al 2022
NIH grants: AG029612, AG062220, OD011092, OD011895

Sixteen young adult female rhesus macaques were used. They were given either a standard diet or a Western-style diet with various modifications. All were also given an implant containing cholesterol under the skin. After about six years, they were impregnated by male rhesus macaques. After about 30 and 130 days, they were anaesthetised to do ultrasound. All foetuses were killed at the mid point of the third trimester by subjecting the macaques to caesarean section. The fate of the mothers was not stated. Roberts et al 2021
NIH grants: OD011092, HD071836, HD086331

At least 35 young female rhesus macaques were used. They were given either a standard diet or a Western-style diet with various modifications. All were also given an implant containing cholesterol under the skin. In the fourth year of treatment, they were placed with a male rhesus macaque. Those who became pregnant had their foetuses killed during the third trimester by subjecting the macaques to caesarean section. The fate of the mothers was not stated. Bishop et al 2021
NIH grants: HD071836, OD011092


Relevant directors of the NIH and its branches, as well as others who are responsible for this research, for 27 October 2022 Take Action alert:

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Research publications for 27 October 2022 Take Action alert:

  1. Bishop, Cecily V.; Takahashi, Diana L.; Luo, Fangzhou; Sidener, Heather; Martin, Lauren Drew; Gao, Lina; Fei, Suzanne S.; Hennebold, Jon D. and Slayden, Ov D. 2022-09-29 "The combined impact of testosterone and Western-style diet on endometriosis severity and progression in rhesus macaques" Biology of Reproduction ioac183
  2. Bishop, Cecily V.; Takahashi, Diana; Mishler, Emily; Slayden, Ov D.; Roberts, Charles T.; Hennebold, Jon and True, Cadence 2021-01-25 "Individual and combined effects of 5-year exposure to hyperandrogenemia and Western-style diet on metabolism and reproduction in female rhesus macaques" Human Reproduction (Oxford, England) 36(2):444-454
  3. Cervera-Juanes, Rita; Darakjian, Priscila; Ball, Megan; Kohama, Steven G. and Urbanski, Henryk F. 2022-02-01 "Effects of estradiol supplementation on the brain transcriptome of old rhesus macaques maintained on an obesogenic diet" GeroScience 44(1):229-252
  4. Dunn, Geoffrey A.; Mitchell, A.J.; Selby, Matthew; Fair, Damien A.; Gustafsson, Hanna C. and Sullivan, Elinor L. 2022-05-01 "Maternal diet and obesity shape offspring central and peripheral inflammatory outcomes in juvenile non-human primates" Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 102:224-236
  5. Nash, Michael J.; Dobrinskikh, Evgenia; Newsom, Sean A.; Messaoudi, Ilhem; Janssen, Rachel C.; Aagaard, Kjersti M.; McCurdy, Carrie E.; Gannon, Maureen; Kievit, Paul; Friedman, Jacob E. and Wesolowski, Stephanie R. 2021-12-22 "Maternal Western diet exposure increases periportal fibrosis beginning in utero in nonhuman primate offspring" JCI Insight 6(24):e154093
  6. Ravisankar, Sweta; Murphy, Melinda J.; Redmayne-Titley, Nash; Davis, Brett; Luo, Fangzhou; Takahashi, Diana; Hennebold, Jon D. and Chavez, Shawn L. 2022-04-01 "Long-Term Hyperandrogenemia and/or Western-Style Diet in Rhesus Macaque Females Impairs Preimplantation Embryogenesis" Endocrinology 163(4):bqac019
  7. Roberts, Victoria H.J.; Streblow, Aaron D.; Gaffney, Jessica E.; Rettke, Samantha P.; Frias, Antonio E. and Slayden, Ov D. 2021-09-01 "Placental Glucose Uptake in a Nonhuman Primate Model of Western-Style Diet Consumption and Chronic Hyperandrogenemia Exposure" Reproductive Sciences 28(9):2574-2581

Ancillary information for Rhesus macaques subjected to severe restraint for reproduction research, published 10 October 2022

Relevant directors of the NIH and its branches, as well as others who are responsible for this research, for 10 October 2022 Take Action alert:

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General references:

  1. McManus, Rich 2013-06-21 "Ex-Director Zerhouni surveys value of NIH research" N.I.H. Record 65(13):
  2. [Elias A. Zerhouni, M.D., NIH Director 2002-2008]: "We have moved away from studying human disease in humans," he lamented. "We all drank the Kool-Aid on that one, me included." With the ability to knock in or knock out any gene in a mouse–which "can't sue us," Zerhouni quipped–researchers have over-relied on animal data. "The problem is that it hasn't worked, and it's time we stopped dancing around the problem...We need to refocus and adapt new methodologies for use in humans to understand disease biology in humans."
  3. Padrell, Maria; Llorente, Miquel and Amici, Federica 2021-10-01 "Invasive Research on Non-Human Primates—Time to Turn the Page" Animals 11(10):2999
  4. Here, we will review previous studies showing that primates have complex behaviour and cognition, and that they suffer long-term consequences after being used in invasive research.

    Although some invasive studies have allowed answering research questions that we could not have addressed with other methods (or at least not as quickly), the use of primates in invasive research also raises ethical concerns. In this review, we will discuss (i) recent advances in the study of primates that show evidence of complex behaviour and cognition, (ii) welfare issues that might arise when using primates in invasive research, (iii) the main ethical issues that have been raised about invasive research on primates, (iv) the legal protection that primates are granted in several countries, with a special focus on the principle of the 3Rs, and (v) previous and current attempts to ban the use of primates in invasive research. Based on this analysis, we suggest that the importance of a research question cannot justify the costs of invasive research on primates, and that non-invasive methods should be considered the only possible approach in the study of primates.

    In this study, we will use the term invasive research to refer to all research that (i) is conducted in the lab, (ii) implies stressful and/or painful body manipulations of individuals, and (iii) is not aimed to increase their welfare. Such body manipulations can range from inoculation with infectious agents and surgery to drug testing and blood sampling, but exclude veterinarian applications that directly benefit the animals...

    The exact number of NHPs currently used worldwide in invasive research is unknown, but estimates suggest that more than 100,000 NHPs are used every year, mostly in the USA...In the United States, the annual report of animal usage informed that 70,797 NHPs were housed in research facilities used in regulated activities; 26,137 of these animals were used in painful procedures and received pain relieving, or similar, drugs, while 802 were subject to painful procedures but did not receive drugs because they would adversely affect results...

Information on NIH grant support funding the research was taken verbatim from the publications. If you have difficulty with the links provided, you can do your own search through the NIH RePORTER site: https://reporter.nih.gov/, by copying and pasting the grant number into the Search field on the form.

Be aware that some grants include funds for more than experiments on non-human primates.